The marching orders were clear: Carry American flags and pack the kids, pick up your trash and wear white for peace and for effect.
Many of the 500,000 people who crammed downtown Los Angeles on Saturday to protest immigration legislation learned where, when and even how to demonstrate from the Spanish-language media.
For English-speaking America, the mass protests in Los Angeles and other U.S. cities have been surprising for their size and seeming spontaneity. But they were organized, promoted or publicized for weeks by Spanish-language radio and TV.
One station director is quoted denying intent to promote the protests:
Telemundo Chicago, a Spanish-language TV station, began coverage 1-1/2 weeks before a recent rally, said news director Esteban Creste.
''We just told them what was going on,'' he said. ''While we were not trying to mobilize people, it might have prompted people to decide to go there.''